Thursday, 31 July 2014

Drop Test Results

Drop Tests Reports


Why do we do the drop tests?

In any case where the balloon pops or the arduino dislodges from the housing, we want to make sure that the arduino does not get damaged and can be used again. Therefore, we do the drop tests to ensure that our arduino can survive a fall and in this case for testing purposes, an egg will emulate the fragility of the arduino and this will save us some money.


Legend: i am a  Dropped from Level 5
      I am a   Dropped from Level 2
        Ia ma  Dropped from Level 3
        Chinese &  Dropped from Level 4



Drop Test 1 (Without Egg):  25 July 2014


Free Fall: The structure spiralled without control.
Damage: No aesthetic damage. Internal Foam bent a little.

Drop Test 2 (With Egg):  29 July 2014


Free Fall: The structure spiralled without control.
Damage: Egg cracked and the yolk spilled everywhere
   Satay Stick also snapped


Drop Test 3 (With Egg): 29 July 2014


Free Fall: The structure flew downwards in one direction only. The speed of the fall was slow.
Damage: Egg Cracked but did not make a huge mess
   No aesthetic damage.


Drop Test 4 (With Egg): 30 July 2014


Free Fall: The structure flew downwards with a high speed
Damage: Egg Cracked and the yolk spilled onto the styrofoam parts.  No aesthetic damage


Drop Test 5 (With Egg): 30 July 2014


Free Fall: The structure flew downwards at a reasonable speed
Damage: Egg Cracked and yolk did not splatter anywhere. However, when we lifted the               structure up, all the yolk spilled out. No Aesthetic Damage


Drop Test 6 (With Egg): 31 July 2014


Free Fall: The structure flew down at a high speed due to strong winds.
Damage: No damage at all. No aesthetic damage as well.


Drop Test 7 (With Egg): 31 July 2014


Free Fall: The structure flew down at a reasonable speed.
Damage: Egg Cracked and yolk spilled everywhere. The foam pieces were stained with yolk and thus, we needed to wash the foam pieces with water. The foam pieces became a lot softer than before.


Drop Test 8 (With Egg): 31 July 2014


Free Fall: The structure spiralled without control.
Damage: The egg cracked.


Drop Test 9 (Without Egg): 1 August 2014


Free Fall: The structure spiralled without control.
Damage: No aesthetic damage.


Drop Test 10 (Without Egg): 1 August 2014


Free Fall: The structure flew downwards at a high speed even when a parachute was attached.
Damage: One piece of foam from the base came off.

AND THAT MARKS THE END OF OUR DROP TESTS

Conclusion:


We realised that a parachute is extremely important in our design as it reduces the speed of flight. We also noticed that there were a few successful drop tests when foam was used. The first few tests were using styrofoam.

Saturday, 5 July 2014

Literature Review

Project Title: How does weather affect air pressure?

According to Walter(2005), weather can affect air pressure. The more water you have in the air, the heavier air becomes. So, if there is less water in the air, the air mixture becomes lighter and it will not push down as hard on the barometer. (Walter, 2005)

Friday, 4 July 2014

Literature Review (Bryan Lee)

According to Urbano (2011), the continents on air heat up faster than the oceans, and they cool down faster too. Water has a higher heat capacity than land. So it takes more heat to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree than it does to raise the temperature of land. The heat absorbed by the ocean is spread out over a greater volume because the oceans are transparent (to some degree).The oceans loose a lot of heat from evaporation. In the evaporative loss experiment, While there is some evaporation from wet soils and transpiration by plants, the land does not have anywhere near as much available moisture to cool it down. Urbano(2011)






Cited From: Urbano, L., 2011. The Thermal Difference Between Land and Water, Retrieved July 4th, 2014, from Montessori Muddle: http://MontessoriMuddle.org/ 

Thursday, 3 July 2014

Lit review (Kenric)

ISS lit review

According to Walter (2001), the pressure in the air is affected by the different chemical elements in the air with different atomic weights. As air normally weighs 1.286 grams per litre and water vapour weighs 0.8 grams per litre, if some of the air was substituted for water, the mixture becomes lighter. So, if there's water (otherwise known as humidity) in the air, the air mixture becomes lighter, reducing the air pressure in the atmosphere (Walter, 2001).

(HowsStuffWorks) Humidity is the percentage of water vapour in the air and it also affects the air pressure as shown above. Humidity can be measured in many different ways, but relative humidity is the most common. Relative humidity is the ratio of the current absolute humidity to the highest possible absolute humidity (which depends on the current air temperature). Absolute humidity is the mass of water vapor divided by the mass of dry air in a volume of air at a given temperature. The warmer the air is, the more water vapour it can contain. A reading of 100% relative humidity means that the air is totally saturated with water vapor and cannot hold any more, creating a high possibility of rain. This doesn't mean that the relative humidity must be 100 percent in order for it to rain -- it must be 100 percent where the clouds are forming, but the relative humidity near the ground could be much less (HowStuffWorks, 2014). 

(Aubyn)Air temperature affects the weather in a huge way as it affects the air’s humidity. The more humid the air is means the air can become warmer and this will ultimately cause weather conditions such as thunderstorms and hurricanes. The way in which cold and warm air interacts is what makes us get different weather conditions. 
The thing that affects the heat of the air and the land is the sun.  The more intense the rays of the sun, the more heat there is in the air. As the air rises up into the atmosphere, its temperature will fall and this is what causes clouds. If more and more moisture is taken in by the clouds, this is what causes precipitation that can fall in the form of rain, sleet, snow or hail.
When cold and warm temperature masses meet, this is what causes different weather conditions. So for instance, when a cold air mass moves into a warm air mass the cold air will contract. This will then cause the cold air to become denser and heavier than the warm air so it is pushed out underneath the warm air. This type of activity is what causes conditions such as thunderstorms. The air will probably become cooler too as the sky begins to clear from the fronts moving on. 
On the opposite side, when a warm air front moves into a cold one, this will cause the warm air to rise as it is not as dense or as heavy as the cold air. This may cause some form of precipitation which falls on the land as snow or rain. There are also the occasions where the cold and warm air fronts remainstationary and do not move. As a result of this, there will probably be some precipitation and weak winds (Aubyn).

(Waikatoregion) The weather and local climate affect air quality. Air pollution can change hourly depending on changes in weather patterns, location and the pollutants being emitted.What the weather is doing can have direct effects on air quality at a given location. For example, sunshine, rain, air temperature and wind can affect the amount of air pollution present. Sunshine makes some pollutants undergo chemical reactions, producing smog while rain washes out water soluble pollutants and particulate matter. Higher air temperatures speed up chemical reactions in the air and wind speed, atmospheric turbulence/stability, and mixing depth - affect the dispersal and dilution of pollutants. The weather can also affect air pollution by affecting people’s activities.
For example, in cold weather we tend to light more fires - for home heating, travel to work in motorised forms of transport more often. In warm weather we tend to use barbecues more often and go away for weekend trips or holidays using motor vehicles. the examples shown release pollutants too (Waikatoregion).

Literature Review (Bryan Goh)

Weather Balloons 

Weather balloons are high altitude balloons that are sent into the atmosphere whilst carrying instruments  called the radiosonde to measure the weather (humidity, temperature, wind velocity etc). The balloon itself is usually made of high latex material and lifted up into the air with hydrogen due to cost constraint. Weather balloons are made of special rubber made to withstand extreme temperature drop (Aberdeen, 2007)

http://www.crh.noaa.gov/abr/?n=wxballoonfacts.php



Wednesday, 2 July 2014

ISS Topic

Final Topic: The effects of weather on atmospheric humidity, temperature, pressure and air quality and its difference on land and in the atmosphere.

Dependent Variable: Atmospheric humidity, temperature, pressure, air quality

Independent Variable: Weather, altitude of test (on land or in air)

Controlled Variable: Height of balloon in air, Location tested, Type of balloon

Hypothesis: The humidity, temperature, pressure and air quality will change with the weather. The results will differ from the land and the air.

Independent, Dependent and Controlled Variables

(Example) 
Experiment: To test if temperature affects the rate of growth of a plant.

Independent Variable: The temperature in which the plant is growing in (the variable that is change-able and isn't affected by the experiment).

Dependent Variable: The height of the plant (the variable that depends on the experiment to change, which is normally the result).

Controlled Variable: 1. Amount of water used to grow the plant 2. Amount of sunlight available for the plant ETC. (Controlled variables are normally those that ensure that the experiment is fair)

Tuesday, 1 July 2014

What is science to us?

Bg: To me, Science is the way the world works. Without Science, there is no life. From how we're born, to why we die, it's all Science.

Kenric: From what I understand, Science is the reason why everything works. It's just a matter of how.

BLee: To me, science is the reason why everyone in this world can live, physically and environmentally. Science is the way we live.

Yu Hin: Science is the study of the world we live in and our environment so as to understand the world better.

Web Definition:  the intellectual and practical activity encompassing the systematic study of the structure and behaviour of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment.


The Scientific Method

The scientific method is a process for experimentation that is used to explore observations and answer questions. Scientists use the scientific method to search for cause and effect relationships in nature. In other words, they design an experiment so that changes to one item cause something else to vary in a predictable way.
Just as it does for a professional scientist, the scientific method will help you to focus your science fair project question, construct a hypothesis, design, execute, and evaluate your experiment.
Steps of the Scientific Method
Steps of the Scientific MethodDetailed Help for Each Step
Ask a Question: The scientific method starts when you ask a question about something that you observe: How, What, When, Who, Which, Why, or Where?
And, in order for the scientific method to answer the question it must be about something that you can measure, preferably with a number.
Your Question
Do Background Research: Rather than starting from scratch in putting together a plan for answering your question, you want to be a savvy scientist using library and Internet research to help you find the best way to do things and insure that you don't repeat mistakes from the past.Background Research Plan
Finding Information
Bibliography
Research Paper
Construct a Hypothesis: A hypothesis is an educated guess about how things work:
"If _____[I do this] _____, then _____[this]_____ will happen."You must state your hypothesis in a way that you can easily measure, and of course, your hypothesis should be constructed in a way to help you answer your original question.
Variables
Variables for Beginners
Hypothesis
Test Your Hypothesis by Doing an Experiment: Your experiment tests whether your hypothesis is supported or not. It is important for your experiment to be a fair test. You conduct a fair test by making sure that you change only one factor at a time while keeping all other conditions the same.You should also repeat your experiments several times to make sure that the first results weren't just an accident.Experimental Procedure
Materials List
Conducting an Experiment
Analyze Your Data and Draw a Conclusion: Once your experiment is complete, you collect your measurements and analyze them to see if they support your hypothesis or not.Scientists often find that their hypothesis was not supported, and in such cases they will construct a new hypothesis based on the information they learned during their experiment. This starts the entire process of the scientific method over again. Even if they find that their hypothesis was supported, they may want to test it again in a new way.Data Analysis & Graphs
Conclusions
Communicate Your Results: To complete your science fair project you will communicate your results to others in a final report and/or a display board. Professional scientists do almost exactly the same thing by publishing their final report in a scientific journal or by presenting their results on a poster at a scientific meeting. In a science fair, judges are interested in your findings regardless of whether or not they support your original hypothesis.Final Report
Abstract
Display Board
Science Fair Judging
Even though we show the scientific method as a series of steps, keep in mind that new information or thinking might cause a scientist to back up and repeat steps at any point during the process. A process like the scientific method that involves such backing up and repeating is called an iterative process.


Credits: http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project_scientific_method.shtml#overviewofthescientificmethod